Normal human breast epithelial cells were transfected with expression vectors containing the p53 gene mutated at either codon 143, 175, 248 or 273, or by infection with a recombinant retroviral vector containing the p53 gene mutated at codons 143, 175, 248, or 273. The breast epithelial cells were monitored for extension of in vitro lifespan and immortalization. Expression of some, but not all, p53 mutants resulted in an extension of in vitro lifespan.
Beneficial microbes and probiotic species, such as Lactobacillus reuteri, produce biologically active compounds that can modulate host mucosal immunity. Previously, immunomodulatory factors secreted by L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 were unknown. A combined metabolomics and bacterial genetics strategy was utilized to identify small compound(s) produced by L. reuteri that were TNF-inhibitory.
The effects of lysine-, methionine- or histidine-deficient diets compared to a control diet fed ad libitum or 15, 10 or 5 g/d were studied in weanling rats. Feed intake was 5-7 g/d for the amino acid-deficient animals. After 3 wk, all amino acid-deficient rats had lost more weight (P less than 0.01) than the controls fed at comparable energy levels. Serum somatomedin (Sm) activity was significantly decreased in lysine- (0.55 U/ml), methionine- (0.32 U/ml) and histidine-deficient (0.38 U/ml) rats compared to rats fed the control diet ad libitum (1.6 U/ml).
FASEB journal: official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
The protein encoded by the sirt1 gene is an enzyme, SirT1, that couples the hydrolysis of NAD(+) to the deacetylation of acetyl-lysine residues in substrate proteins. Mutations of the sirt1 gene that fail to encode protein have been introduced into the mouse germ line, and the animals homozygous for these null mutations have various physiological abnormalities.
BACKGROUND: Semen armeniacae amarum (SAA) is a Chinese traditional medicine and has long been used to control acute lower respiratory tract infection and asthma, as a result of its expectorant and antiasthmatic activities. However, its mutagenicity in vitro and in vivo has not yet been reported. The Ames test for mutagenicity is used worldwide. The histidine contained in biological samples can induce histidine-deficient cells to replicate, which results in more his+ colonies than in negative control cells, therefore false-positive results may be obtained.
Zinc is abundant in the central nervous system and regulates pain, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In vitro studies have shown that extracellular zinc modulates a plethora of signaling membrane proteins, including NMDA receptors containing the NR2A subunit, which display exquisite zinc sensitivity. We created NR2A-H128S knock-in mice to investigate whether Zn2+-NR2A interaction influences pain control. In these mice, high-affinity (nanomolar) zinc inhibition of NMDA currents was lost in the hippocampus and spinal cord.